PHOTO GALLERY: The Business of Black Haircare

PermCurlMachine

In 1928, Marjorie Joyner, national supervisor of Madame C.J. Walker Beauty Colleges, invented the permanent waving machine modifying the process in which black women straightened tightly-curled hair by using a stove-heated curling iron. The device connected 16 rods to a single electric cord of a standard drying hood and after women wore the hood for a designated period of time their hair would be straightened or curled. Joyner, one of the first black women to receive a patent, produced a device popular in both black and white salons. (Image: the permanent waving machine)

In 1928, Marjorie Joyner, national supervisor of Madame C.J. Walker Beauty Colleges, invented the permanent…