Here are seven memorable slave rebellions that took place in the United States.

The Haitian Revolution was a pivotal moment in world history and is considered one of the most successful revolts featuring enslaved people in the world. However, it is not the only one. Below is a list of seven revolts and their lasting impacts.

1. The Stono Rebellion of 1739

The Stono Rebellion of 1739 has largely been overlooked when discussing Black Americans’ fight for liberation throughout history. Still, it is one of the most forceful displays of resistance in the United States known to date. On Sept. 9, 1739, near Charleston, SC, roughly 20 enslaved people raided a store known as Hutchisons, killing its white owners and placing their heads outside of the establishment for passersby to witness, according to PBS. Trained from their varied experiences either in their native homes or as soldiers during the Yamasee War, this band of abolitionists burned houses into ash while fighting. As their march along King’s Highway continued, the group grew to around 100 fighters. This battle against the English continued for more than a week before a majority of the participants were killed or subdued. Despite this outcome, the Stono Revolt inspired over 50 slave insurrections the next year.

2. The Zanj Rebellion of 869 A.D.

The Zanj Revolt of 869 A.D. arose when the Zanj people and revolutionary leader Ali bin Muhammad fought against the Abbasid Caliphate in the Middle East, according to Capturing supplies in the thick of the night, other rebels joined the cause, eventually exceeding 500,000 people. They even managed to commandeer a navy and gain control of at least six cities in what is now known as Iraq. The rebellion only concluded after 15 years when the Abbasid army defeated the rebel capital. Though Ali bin Muhammad was killed in combat, many of the Zanj people survived and were offered spaces in the Abbasid army. 

3. The German Coast Uprising of 1811 

Orchestrated by Charles Deslondes, this insurrection involved approximately 25 enslaved people who attacked the owner of the Andry plantation as well as his family. Though the abolitionists successfully killed one of the plantation owner’s sons, the owner was allowed to live. The enslaved then took over the plantation, which was equipped with military weapons. Now armed, they marched toward New Orleans with plans to capture the city. Soon after, however, they were met with military forces. Two days into the battle, the rebels ran out of ammunition. The rebellion was crushed and, while some insurgents escaped, others were arrested and executed to deter future revolts.

4. Nat Turner’s Rebellion 

One of history’s most well-known slave rebellions took place Aug. 21, 1831 in Southampton, VA, and led to the deaths of over 50 white Americans as well as Turner’s execution. Propelled by what he believed to be God’s will, Turner, along with a group of about 70 enslaved people, sought to abolish slavery through force, using weapons such as knives and muskets. Though Turner’s Rebellion was quashed before he could achieve his goal, it had lasting ramifications. An additional 200 enslaved people were killed by vengeful white mobs and Black people were subsequently banned from learning how to read as slave owners feared a repeat of Turner’s actions. Nat Turner’s uprising marked a turning point for slaves across the United States, as white Americans grew fearful of what enslaved people could achieve if they gained access to resources.

5. The Amistad Mutiny of 1839

The Amistad Mutiny of 1839 took place after a group of enslaved Africans transported to Cuba during the height of the sugar trade on the Amistad commandeered the boat on which they were captured. This came after the United States and Great Britain had banned the international slave trade in 1807. The enslaved people managed to kill the ship’s captain as well as a crew member before directing the surviving captors to steer the vessel back toward Africa. Throughout the day, the crew members obliged, leading the ship toward Africa. However, when night fell, they would reverse directions, instead leading the enslaved people back to the United States. Eventually, after two months of travel, the ship landed on U.S. shores. There, the slaves were imprisoned while the slave trading crew members were freed. The two remaining Cuban crew members demanded the return of their “Cuban-born” captors whereas the Spanish government wanted them extradited to Cuba to stand trial for murder and piracy. Abolitionists in the United States also became involved, calling for the slaves to be released and returned to Africa. A lengthy trial ensued until, finally on March 9, 1841, the Supreme Court found that the rebels had been illegally enslaved and were exercising their right to fight for freedom. In a momentous win, the Amistad rebels returned home, with financial help from their allies.

6. Harpers Ferry Raid

On Oct. 16 in 1859, a group of abolitionists marched on Harpers Ferry in Virginia, according to Brittnanica. Spearheaded by John Brown, the band planned to stage a rebellion and establish a haven for freed slaves across Virginia and Maryland. This integrated group encompassed 16 white people and five Black people, who took over the armory during nightfall on Oct. 16. Two days of fighting ensued; state and federal troops were eventually deployed to suppress the movement. Though the battle was short-lived and its participants were either killed in action or hanged for treason, it invigorated the anti-slavery movement in the South while sowing fear into the hearts of white slave owners. John Brown was also hailed as a symbol of martyrdom.

7. The New York Slave Revolt of 1712

While New York City was being built into what would become the most influential metropolis in the United States, enslaved people were left to bear its responsibilities. Finally, having grown tired of years of mistreatment and abuse, a group of over two dozen joined together to kill their masters on April 6, 1712. Armed with weapons, the insurrectionists killed 9 slaveowners and injured an additional six before fleeing to the north, where they were tailed by military forces. Eventually, they were caught and publicly executed for their actions but the New York Slave Revolt challenged the dominant existence of the active slave trade in the country’s most socially advanced city.